Community Nursing: Children’s Diseases
Children’s nursing is more difficult than caring for adults, because the first cannot always explain their feelings. Thus, each of them demands a special approach. Moreover, the importance of child’s care increases with understanding that he or she is the future of society. This paper is dedicated to children’s diseases and their influence on the overall evaluation of community’s health.
The Infant Mortality Rate and Community’s Health
The wellbeing of the whole community may be evaluated with the help of the infant mortality rate (IMR). Moreover, it can serve as a sign of country’s economic state. This statement comes from the fact that such external factors as healthcare services and healthcare coverage of the population are directly related to this rate. Moreover, the quality of water and food together with the level of infections in a particular land play a significant role for the IMR. According to Holzemer and Klainberg (2014), the worldwide average rate comprises 40 children per 1,000 newly born. In particular, the United States takes the 177th place in the world’s ranking due to its problems associated with national diversity. Such number is explained by a high rate of premature births among American minorities. This number has increased by 30% over the last years since 1981 (Holzemer & Klainberg, 2014).
The Manifestation of Chronic Diseases in Children
Chronic diseases are not always easy to recognize in children, especially at birth. However, when they become older, doctors can notice an increase in blood pressure. At the same time, their weight structure differs from the one of healthy children. For example, kids with chronic diseases may have bad muscles, but much fat, which leads to its accumulation and blocks normal blood circulation (Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, 2003). Moreover, obesity has been proven to have a direct relation to cancer.
Bad economic conditions in childhood have a significant impact on further risks of diabetes, CHD and stroke. At the same time, height is also an indicator of the socioeconomic situation of a child. If it is small, it can be a sign of cardiovascular problems in adult life. Syndrome X is another manifestation of chronic diseases, which includes insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension (Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, 2003). Increased serum cholesterol serves as an indicator of cardiovascular diseases in the future.
The Scope of Maltreatment of Children in the United States
The maltreatment of children later results in psychic disorders as well as prevents their normal development. However, according to Constantino (2016), adults who do not care for their children properly often project their own bad childhood onto young generation. The unstable behavior of such adults can be spotted within the first days of children’s lives, which gives a serious reason for studies and early prevention of maltreatment (Lundy & James, 2009). In the United States, 1 from 8 children becomes a victim of such practice (Constantino, 2016). For this reason, the country considers different possibilities to avoid maltreatment at early stages to prevent psychiatric diseases in the future. For example, such measures as home visits of child psychiatric patients, parenting education, parent-child interactional therapy, as well as bullying prevention are aimed at decreasing the number of mistreated children (Constantino, 2016). Specially designed studies conducted in the United States have proven that such factor as poverty results in 32% of general maltreatment cases (Constantino, 2016). Moreover, unintended pregnancy, partner violence and bad mental health of parents serve as the major indicators of maltreatment risks.
Poverty and bad background of parents have a great influence on children’s health. However, their diseases can be avoided with the help of indicators, which appear early as signs of future problems. At the same time, the general statistics of children’s health and treatment in the United States demands immediate actions on the side of the government. Children’s wellbeing is the first priority for the development of American society.
Constantino, N. J. (2016). Child maltreatment: Prevention and the scope of child and adolescent psychiatry. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of North America, 25 (2), 157-165. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2015.11.003
Holzemer, P. S., & Klainberg, M. (2014). Community health nursing: An alliance for health (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. (2003). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases.
Lundy, S. K., & James, S. (2009). Community health nursing: Caring for the public’s health (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, LLC.